The effects of nuclear weapons are impossible to control: the effects of a single detonation can wreak havoc on the environment and communities across borders and hundreds of miles away.
A nuclear blast would similarly affect animals with burns, long-term reproductive complications, and multi-generational genetic mutations. The radioactive fallout following a blast would also contaminate water, soil, and plant life, rendering large tracts of land uninhabitable and compromising the safety of food and water in the area.
Even a limited nuclear war with multiple nuclear detonations could have global effects and put 2 billion people, or more than 25% of the world’s population, at risk. A limited nuclear war using less than 0.5% of the world’s total nuclear arsenals would cause a nuclear blackout and significant climate disruption. These changes in climate would impact food and agricultural production, creating worldwide market shocks and skyrocketing the price of essential foodstuffs. This nuclear-fueled famine would result in the starvation of billions of people.